Retrieved 15 October Des langues romanes , Duculot, , , p. Occitan activists called Occitanists have attempted, in particular with the advent of Occitan-language preschools the Calandretas , to reintroduce the language to the young. The answer to the question of whether Gascon or Catalan should be considered dialects of Occitan or separate languages has long been a matter of opinion or convention, rather than based on scientific ground. One interesting and useful feature of the Occitan language is its virtually infinite ability to create new words through a number of interchangeable and embeddable suffixes, giving the original terms a whole array of semantic nuances. Retrieved 5 March

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Jules Ronjat has sought to characterize Occitan by 19 principal criteria, as generalized as possible. Because the geographical territory in which Occitan is spoken is surrounded by regions in which other Romance languages are used, external influences lenga stress have influenced its origin and development.

Today, Occitan is an official language in Cataloniawhere lehga subdialect of Gascon known as Aranese is spoken in the Val d’Aran. The language was one strses the first to gain prestige as a medium for literature among Romance languages in the Middle Lenga stress.

Examples of Gascon -specific features not shared with French or Catalan:. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, pp.

This was given the official Roman Catholic Imprimatur by A. See LexiconLexemeLexicography for more information. Lenga stress communities were called in for trading purposes by Navarrese kings in the early 12th century to the coastal fringe extending from San Sebastian to the Bidasoa Riverwhere they settled down. Of some 12 to 13 million inhabitants in the area, it is estimated 48 per cent lenga stress Occitan, 28 per cent can speak it, about 9 per cent of the population use it on a daily basis, 13 per cent can read and 6 per cent can write the language.


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It resulted that a second Occitan immigration of this period was assimilated by the similar Navarro-Aragonese languagewhich at the same time was fostered and chosen by the kings of Aragon. Retrieved 6 March Michael Crichton features Occitan in his Timeline novel. Most features of Occitan are shared with either French or Catalanor both.

Occitan activists called Occitanists have attempted, in particular lenga stress the advent of Occitan-language preschools the Calandretasto reintroduce the language lenga stress the young. A grammar of Aranese by Aitor Carrera, published in in Lleidapresents the same view. La langue occitanecoll. Occitan language repository of Wikisourcethe free library. Close rounded vowels are rare or absent in Occitan.

Bec also notes that some linguists prefer a “supradialectal” classification that groups Occitan with Catalan as a part of a wider Occitano-Romanic group. The language lenga stress used lenga stress different from the ones used in Navarre, i.

If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. Catalan in Spain’s northern and central Mediterranean coastal regions lenva the Balearic Islands is closely related to Lnga, sharing many linguistic features and a common origin see Occitano-Romance languages. The separation of Catalan from Occitan is seen by some [ citation needed ] as largely politically rather than linguistically motivated. However, there is controversy about lenga stress unity of the language, as some think that Occitan is a macrolanguage.


Gascon presents a number of significant differences from the rest lengs the language; but, despite these differences, Gascon and other Occitan dialects have very important common lexical lengw grammatical features, so authors such as Pierre Bec argue that they could never be considered as different as, for example, Spanish and Italian.

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Nevertheless, other scholars point out that the process that led to the affirmation of Catalan as a distinct language from Occitan started during the period when the pressure to include Catalan-speaking lenga stress in a mainstream Spanish culture was at its greatest. This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. Recent research has shown it may be spoken as a first language by approximatelypeople [1] [2] in FranceItalySpain and Monaco.

Archived from the original on 9 November There are also two other norms but they have a lesser audience. New Lenga stress Mustafa — Lenga Stress. Please help to improve this section by introducing more precise citations. Languedocien Totas las personas naisson liuras e egalas en dignitat e en drech. You can adjust all of your cookie settings by navigating the tabs on the left hand side.